The Harlem Renaissance, a movement of the 1920's, marked the twentieth century's first
period of intense activity by African Americans in the field of literature, art, and music in the
United States. The philosophy of the movement combined realism, ethnic consciousness, and
Americanism. Encouraged by the example of certain Americans of European descent such as
Thomas Eakins, Robert Henri, and George Luks, who had included persons of African descent in
their paintings as serious studies rather than as trivial or sentimental stereotypes, African American
artists of this period set about creating a new portrayal of themselves and their lives in the United
States. As they began to strive for social and cultural independence. Their attitudes toward
themselves changed, and, to some extent, other segments of American society began to change
their attitudes toward them. Thus, though the Harlem Renaissance was a short-lived movement, its
impact on American art and culture continues to the present.
The district in New York City known as Harlem was the capital of the movement. In 1925 an
issue of Survey Graphic magazine devoted exclusively to Harlem and edited by philosopher Alain
Locke became the manifesto of the African American artistic movement. Locke strongly
suggested that individuals, while accepting their Americanism, take pride in their African ancestral
arts and urged artists to look to Africa for substance and inspiration. Far from advocating a
withdrawal from American culture, as did some of his contemporaries, Locke recommended a
cultural pluralism through which artists could enrich the culture of America. African Americans
were urged by Locke to be collaborators and participators with other Americans in art, literature,
and music; and at the same time to preserve, enhance, and promote their own cultural heritage.
Artists and intellectuals from many parts of the United States and the Caribbean had been
attracted to Harlem by the pulse and beat of its unique and dynamic culture. From this unity
created by the convergence of artists from various social and geographical backgrounds came a
new spirit, which, particularly in densely populated Harlem, was to result in greater group
awareness and self-determination. African American graphic artists took their place beside the
poets and writers of the Harlem Renaissance and carried on efforts to increase and promote the visual arts.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A)AfricanAmerican paintings in the 1920's
(B)An arts movement of the 1920's
(C) The influence of Alain Locke on African American art
(D) Some ways in which African culture inspired American literature, art and music
2. According to the passage , Tomas Eakins, Robert Henri, and George Luks were important because of
(A) the philosophical contributions they made to the Harlem Renaissance
(B) their development of a new style of African American art
(C) they way in which they depicted African Americans in their paintings
(D) their independence from European artistic traditions
3. The word "them" in line 11 refers to
(A)Americans of European descent
(C)African American artists
4. According to the passage , African American artists of the 1920's differed from earlier African American artists in terms of their feelings about
(B) other artists
(C) their impact on American art
5. The word "urged" in line 17 is closest in meaning to
6. Alain Locke believed all of the following to be important to the African American artistic movement EXCEPT
(A) pride in African art
(B) cultural pluralism
(C) collaboration with other artists
(D) with drawal from American culture
7. In mentioning "the pulse and beat" (line 25) of Harlem during the 1920's, the author is characterizing the district as one that
(A) depended greatly on its interaction with other parts of the city
(B) grew economically in a short period of time
(C) was an exciting place to be
(D) was in danger of losing population
8. The word "convergence" in line 26 is closest in meaning to
9. According to the passage , all of the following were true of Harlem in the 1920's EXCEPT:
(A) Some Caribbean artists and intellectuals lived there.
(B) It attracted people from various regions of United States.
(C) It was one of the most expensive neighborhoods in NewYork City.
(D) It was a unique cultural center.
10. The phrase "carried on" in line 30 is closest in meaning to