101. Physician: The patient is suffering either from disease X or else from disease Y, but there is no available test for distinguishing X from Y. Therefore, since there is an effective treatment for Y but no treatment for X, we must act on the assumption that the patient has a case of Y.
The physician’s reasoning could be based on which one of the following principles?
(A) In treating a patient who has one or the other of two diseases, it is more important to treat the diseases than to determine which of the two diseases the patient has.
(B) If circumstances beyond a decision maker’s control will affect the outcome of the decision maker’s actions, the decision maker must assume that circumstances are unfavorable.
(C) When the soundness of a strategy depends on the truth of a certain assumption, the first step in putting the strategy into effect must be to test the truth of this assumption.
(D) When success is possible only if a circumstance beyond one’s control is favorable, then one’s strategy must be based on the assumption that this circumstance is in fact favorable.
(E) When only one strategy carries the possibility of success, circumstances must as much as possible be changed to fit this strategy.
102. Consumer advocate: tropical oils are high in saturated fats, which increase the risk of heart disease fortunately, in most prepared food tropical oils can be replaced by healthier alternatives without noticeably affecting taste. therefore, intensive publicity about the disadvantage of tropical oils will be likely to result in dietary changes that will diminish many people’s risk of developing heart disease
nutritionist: the major sources of saturated fat in the average north American diet are meat, poultry, and dairy products, not tropical oils. thus, focusing attention on the health hazards of tropical oils would be counterproductive, because it would encourage people to believe that more substantial dietary changes are unnecessary.
which one of the following is a point at issue between the nutritionist and the consumer advocate?
(A) whether a diet that regularly includes large quantities of tropical oil can increase the risk of heart disease
(B) whether intensive publicity campaigns can be effective as means of changing people’s eating habits
(C) whether more people in north American would benefit from reducing the amount of meat they consume than would benefit from eliminating tropical oils from their diets.
(D) whether some people’s diets could be made significantly healthier if they replaced all tropical oils with vegetable oils that are significantly lower in saturated fat
(E) whether conducting a publicity campaign that by focusing on the health hazards of tropical oils persuades people to replace such oils with healthier alternatives is a good public-health strategy